Energy System 2050 – A Contribution of the Research Field Energy

“Energy System 2050” is a joint initiative of the research field energy of the Helmholtz Association. Running until 2019, it is aiming at improving the concrete understanding of energy systems and at developing technological solutions for use by politics and industry.



Model compendium, data, and optimization benchmarks for sector-coupled energy systems. S. Sass, T. Faulwasser, D.E. Hollermann, C.D. Kappatou, D. Sauer, T. Schütz, D.Y. Shu, A. Bardow, L. Gröll, V. Hagenmeyer, D. Müller, A. Mitsos, Computers & Chemical Engineering 135, 2020, 106760, DOI: 10.1016/j.compchemeng.2020.106760

Probabilistic energy forecasting using the nearest neighbors quantile filter and quantile regression. J. Á. González-Ordiano, L R. Gröll, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, International Journal of Forecasting, 2019, in press, online available

Assessment of a scheduling strategy for dispatching prosumption of an industrial campus. R. R. Appino, J. Á. González Ordiano, N. Munzke, R. Mikut, T. Faulwasser, V. Hagenmeyer, International ETG-Congress, 2019, Esslingen, Germany

DyOS - A Framework for Optimization of Large-Scale Differential Algebraic Equation Systems. A. Caspari, A. M. Bremen, J. M. M. Faust, F. Jung, C. D. Kappatou, S. Sass, Y. Vaupel, R. Hannemann-Tamás, A. Mhamdi, A. Mitsos, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering 46, 2019, 619-624.

Flexible here-and-now decisions for two-stage multi-objective optimization: Method and application to energy system design selection. D. E. Hollermann, M. Goerigk, D. F. Hoffrogge, M. Hennen, A. Bardow, arXiv:1906.08621, 2019.

Optimal (n-1)-reliable design of distributed energy supply systems. D. E. Hollermann, D. F. Hoffrogge, F. Mayer, M. Hennen, A. Bardow. Comput. Chem. Eng. 121, 2019, 317-326.

Multi-Indikator Assessment of Innovative Small-scale Biomethane Technologies. K. Bienert, B. Schumacher, M. Rojas Arboleda, E. Billig, S. Shakya, G. Rogstrand, M. Zieliński, M. Dębowski. Energies 12, 2019, 1321.

Non-fossil CO2 recycling—The technical potential for the present and future utilization for fuels in Germany. E. Billig, M. Decker, W. Benzinger, F. Ketelsen, P. Pfeifer, R. Peters, D. Stolten, D. Thrän. Journal of CO2 Utilization 30, 2019, 130-141.

Biomethane: local energy carrier or European commodity? T. Horschig, E. Billig, S. Majer, D. Thrän. In: E. Gawel, S. Strunz, P. Lehmann, A. Purkus (eds.), The European dimension of Germany’s energy transition: opportunities and conflicts, 2019, Springer Nature, Cham, 543-557.

From Paris agreement to business cases for upgraded biogas: Analysis of potential market uptake for biomethane plants in Germany using biogenic carbon capture and utilization technologies. T. Horschig, A. Welfle, E. Billig, D. Thrän. Biomass Bioenerg. 120, 2019, 313-323.

A review of multi-criteria decision making approaches for evaluating energy storage systems for grid applications. M. Baumann, M. Weil, J. Peters, N. Chibeles-Martins, A. Brandão Moniz. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 107, 2019, 516-534, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.02.016.

A viability study of renewables and energy storage systems using multicriteria decision making and an evolutionary approach. C. Marcelino, C. Pedreira, M. Baumann, M. Weil, E. Wanner, P. Almeida. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 11411, 2019, 655-668, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-12598-1_52.

Optical Measurements of a Lower Calorific Values-Combustor Operated in a Micro Gas Turbine With Various Fuel Compositions. T. Zornek, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 141, 2019, 041032.

Solar hydrogen production: a bottom-up analysis of different photovoltaic–electrolysis pathways. M. Reuß, J. Reul, T. Grube, M. Langemann, S. Calnan, M. Robinius, R. Schlatmann, U. Rauc, D. Stolten. Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2019.

A combined optimisation and decision-making approach for battery-supported HMGS. C. G. Marcelino, M. J. Baumann, L. Carvalho, N. C. Martins, M. Weil, P. E. M. de Almeida, E. F. Wanner. Journal of the Operational Research Society 70, 2019, DOI:10.1080/01605682.2019.1582590.

A review of multi-criteria decision making approaches for evaluating energy storage systems for grid applications. M. Baumann, M. Weil, J. F. Peters, N. Chibeles-Martins, A. B. Moniz, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 107, 2019, 516-534.



Utilization of MMC-HVDC for Primary and Secondary Control in Hybrid ACDC Power Systems. Y. Rink, L. Held, S. Wenig, M. Suriyah, T. Leibfried, 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), 4-7 Sept. 2018, Glasgow, UK, Publisher: IEEE, DOI: 10.1109/UPEC.2018.8542083.

Techno-economic and environmental suitability criteria of hydrothermal processes for treating biogenic residues: A SWOT analysis approach. D. Reißmann, D. Thrän, A. Bezama, J. Clean Prod. 200, 2018, 293-304.

Key development factors of hydrothermal processes in Germany by 2030: A fuzzy logic analysis. D. Reißmann, D. Thrän, A. Bezama, Energies 11, 2018, art. 3532.

Experimental Analysis of the Fuel Flexibility of a Jet-Stabilized Micro Gas Turbine Combustor Designed for Low Calorific Gases. H. E. Bower, F. Grimm, A. Schwärzle, J. Roth, T. Zornek, P. Kutne, Global Power and Propulsion Society Conference (GPPS), 2018, Montreal, Canada.

Smart Energy Grid der Zukunft – Securityprobleme und Lösungsansätze. H. Keller. Berliner Gesamtkonferenz der Sicherheitsinstitutionen, 5. Konferenz, 2018, 7-33.

How to identify suitable ways for the hydrothermal treatment of wet bio-waste? A critical review and methods proposal. D. Reißmann, D. Thrän, A. Bezama, Waste Management & Research, 2018, 912-923, DOI: 10.1177/0734242X18785735.

Life Cycle Assessment of hydrogen transport and distribution options. Wulf, C., M. Reuß, T. Grube, P. Zapp, M. Robinius, J.-F. Hake, D. Stolten. Journal of Cleaner Production 199, 2018, 431-443.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of the thermochemical conversion of biomass for the production of fuel, electricity and heat. M. Haase, C. Rösch, In: ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Kopenhagen, Dänemark, 14.-17.05.2018. Florenz, Italien: ETA-Florence Renewable Energies 2018, publ. online, 1450-1457, DOI: 10.5071/26thEUBCE2018-4BV.6.6.

Sustainability assessment of the German energy transition. C. Rösch, K.-R. Bräutigam, J. Kopfmüller, V. Stelzer, A. Fricke, In: Energy, Sustainability and Society, 2018, DOI: 10.1186/s13705-018-0153-4.

LCA of key technologies for future electricity supply.R. Frischknecht,C. Bauer, C. Bucher, L. Ager-Wick Ellingsen, L. Gutzwiller, B. Heimbach, R. Itten, X. Liao, E. Panos, S. Pfister, T. Schmidt, V. Stahel, P. Stolz, M. Weil, 68th LCA forum, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 16 April 2018. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2018, 1-6, publ. online, DOI: 10.1007/s11367-018-1496-y.

Solving security constrained optimal power flow problems: A hybrid evolutionary approach. C. Marcelino, P. Almeida, E. Wanner, M. Baumann, M. Weil, L. Carvalho, V. Miranda, Applied Intelligence, 2018, 1-19, publ. online, DOI: 10.1007/s10489-018-1167-5.

A new model for optimization of hybrid microgrids using an evolutionary approach (in Portugiesisch). C. Marcelino, M. Baumann, P. Almeida, E. Wanner, M. Weil, IEEE Latin America Transactions 16, 2018, 799-805.

Life cycle assessment of a vanadium redox flow battery. S. Weber, J. Peters, M. Baumann, M. Weil, Energy Environmental Science 52, 2018, 10864-10873, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b02073.

Ökologische und Ökonomische Performance stationärer Li-Ion-Batteriespeicher. M. Baumann, J. Peters, M. Weil, In: 15. Symposium Energieinnovation, Graz, Österreich, 2018, ISBN 978-3-85125-586-7, DOI: 10.3217/978-3-85125-584-3.

Life-cycle analysis for assessing environmental impact. H. Hottenroth, J. Peters, M. Baumann, I. Tietze, T. Viere, In: R. E. Hester, R.M. Harrison (Hrsg.): Energy storage options and their environmental impacts. Abingdon, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018, 261-295, DOI: 10.1039/9781788015530-00261 (Issues in Environmental Science and Technology).

On the Use of Probabilistic Forecasts in Scheduling of Renewable Energy Sources Coupled to Storages. R. Appino, J. Á. González-Ordiano, R. Mikut, T. Faulwasser, V. Hagenmeyer, Applied Energy 210, 2018, 1207-1218.

Reliable Dispatch of Renewable Generation via Charging of; Time-varying PEV Populations. R. R. Appino, M. Muñoz-Ortiz, R. Á. Ordiano, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, T. Faulwasser, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 34(2), pp. 1558 – 1568, 2019.

Energy Forecasting Tools and Services. J. Á. González Ordiano, S. Waczowicz, V. Hagenmeyer, R. Mikut, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 8, 2018, 1235

Concept and Benchmark Results for Big Data Energy Forecasting Based on Apache Spark. J. Á. González Ordiano, A. Bartschat, N. Ludwig, E. Braun, S. Waczowicz, N. Renkamp, N. Peter, C. Düpmeier, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, Journal of Big Data 5, 2018, 11.

Numerical Weather Prediction Data Free Solar Power Forecasting with Neural. V. Sharma, U. Cali, V. Hagenmeyer, R. Mikut, J. Á. González Ordiano, Networks Proc., of the Ninth ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems, 2018, 604-609.

Storage Scheduling with Stochastic Uncertainties: Feasibility and Cost of Imbalances Proc. R. R. Appino, J. Á. González Ordiano, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, T. Faulwasser, 2018 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), 2018, 1-7.

Dynamically induced cascading failures in supply networks. B. Schaefer, D. Witthaut, M. Timme, V. Latora, Nature Communications 9, 2018, 1975.

Linear Optimal Power Flow Using Cycle Flows. J. Hoersch, H. Ronellenfitsch, D. Witthaut, T. Brown, Electric Power Systems Research 158, 2018, 126.

Rotor-angle versus voltage instability in the third-order model for synchronous generators. K. Sharafutdinov, M. Matthiae, T. Faulwasser, D. Witthaut, Chaos 28, 2018, 033117.

Modeling long correlation times using additive binary Markov chains: Applications to wind generation time series. J. Weber, C. Zachow, D. Witthaut, Phys. Rev. E 97, 2018, 032138.

Inferring power-grid topology in the face of uncertainties. F. Basiri, J. Casadiego, M. Timme, D. Witthaut, Phys. Rev. E 98, 2018, 012305.

Energiespeicher. P. Stenzel, et al., Brennstoff, Wärme, Kraft, 2018, 35-46.

Control Techniques and the Modeling of Electrical Power Flow across Transmission Networks. K. Syranidis, M. Robinius, D. Stolten, Renewable & sustainable energy reviews 82, 2018, 3452-3467.

The Investment Costs of Electrolysis - A Comparison of Cost Studies from the Past 30 Years. S. Saba, et al., International journal of hydrogen energy 43, 2018, 1209-1223.

Power-to-Gas Electrolyzers as an Alternative to Network Expansion - An Example from a Distribution System Operator. M. Robinius, et al., Applied Energy 210, 2018, 182-197.

Assessment of system variations for hydrogen transport by liquid organic hydrogen carriers. C. Wulf, P. Zapp, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 43, 2018, 11884-11895.

Improved power provision from biomass: A retrospective on the impacts of German energy policy. M. Scheftelowitz, R. Becker, D. Thrän, Biomass and Bioenergy 111, 2018, 1-12.

Hydrothermal processes as treatment paths for biogenic residues in Germany: A review of the technology, sustainability and legal aspects. D. Reißmann, D. Thrän, A. Bezama, Journal of Cleaner Production 172, 2018, 239-252.

Natural wind variability triggered drop in German redispatch volume and costs from 2015 to 2016. J. Wohland, M. Reyers, C. Märker, D. Witthaut, PLOS ONE 13, 2018, e0190707.

Non-Gaussian Power Grid Frequency Fluctuations Characterized by Lévy-stable Laws and Superstatistics. B. Schäfer, C. Beck, K. Aihara, D. Witthaut, M. Timme, Nature Energy 3, 2018, 119.


Indicator System for the Sustainability Assessment of the German Energy System and its Transition. C. Rösch, K.-R. Bräutigam, J. Kopfmüller, V. Stelzer, P. Lichtner, Energy, Sustainability and Society, 2017, 1-13, DOI: 10.1186/s13705-016-0103-y.

Technisch-ökonomischer Vergleich von Biomethan und Bio-SNG. E. Billig, Biobased Future: Mitteilungsblatt über Biomasse für Energie und Industrie in einer nachhaltigen Wirtschaft 7, 2017, 23.

The standardisation, production and utilisation of biomethane in Europe and China - a comprehensive analysis. E. Billig, D. Thrän, P. Pu, C. Yu, Int. J. Oil Gas Coal Technol. 14, 2017, 110-129.

Towards Coding Strategies for Forecasting-Based Scheduling in Smart Grids and the Energy Lab 2.0 Proc., Genetic and Evolutionary Computation. W. Jakob, J. Á. González Ordiano, N. Ludwig, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, Conference Companion, 2017, 1271-1278.

Effect of Cascade Storage System Topology on the Cooling Energy Consumption in Fueling Stations for Hydrogen Vehicles. E. Talpacci, et al., International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 43, 2017, 6256 - 6265.

H2-Pipelinenetz ist bezahlbar. M. Robinius, HZwei, 2017.

Time Series Aggregation for Energy Systems Design: Modeling of Seasonal Storage. L. Kotzur, et al., Applied energy 213, 2017, 123-135.

Impact of Different Time Series Aggregation Methods on Optimal Energy System Design. L. Kotzur, et al., Renewable energy 117, 2017, 474-487.

Long-term power-to-gas potential from wind and solar power: A country analysis for Italy. G. Guandalini, et al., International journal of hydrogen energy 42, 2017, 13389–13406.

Renewable methane – A technology evaluation by multi-criteria decision making in a European perspective. E. Billig, D. Thrän, Energy 139, 2017, 468-484. DOI:10.1016/

Bioenergy carriers – from smoothly treated biomass towards solid and gaseous biofuels. D. Thrän, E. Billig, A. Brosowski, M. Klemm, S. M. Seitz, J. Witt, Chemie Ingenieur Technik, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/cite.201700083.

Completion of wind turbine data sets for wind integration studies applying random forests and k-nearest neighbors. R. Becker, D. Thrän, Applied Energy 208, 2017, 252-262, ISSN 0306-2619.

Biogas plants and surplus generation: Cost driver or reducer in the future German electricity system? M. Lauer, D. Thrän, Energy Policy 109, 2017, 324-336, ISSN 0301-4215.

On Implementation of Primary Frequency Control, MMC-HVDC Transmission Systems. Y. Rink, L. Held, S. Wenig, M. Suriyah, T. Leibfried, IEEE International Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies IEEE (ISGT Europe 2017), Torino, Italy, 2017.

Cluster-based DC grid control strategies applied to a European offshore grid scenario. Y. Rink, S. Wenig, C. Hirsching, M. Suriyah, T. Leibfried, 52th IEEE International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC 2017), Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2017.

More homogeneous wind conditions under strong climate change decrease the potential for inter-state balancing of electricity in Europe. J. Wohland, M. Reyers, J. Weber, D. Witthaut, Earth System Dynamics 8, 2017,1047-1060.

Cycle flows and multistabilty in oscillatory networks: an overview. D. Manik, M. Timme, D. Witthaut, Chaos 27, 2017, 083123.

Dual theory of transmission line outages. H. Ronellenfitsch, D. Manik, J. Hoersch, T. Brown, D. Witthaut, IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 32, 2017, 4060.

Escape Routes, Weak Links, and Desynchronization in Fluctuation-driven Networks. B. Schaefer, M. Matthiae, X. Zhang, M. Rohden, M. Timme, D. Witthaut, Phys. Rev. E 95, 2017, 060203.

Network susceptibilities: theory and applications. D. Manik, M. Rohden, H. Ronellenfitsch, X. Zhang, S. Hallerberg, D. Witthaut, M. Timme, Phys. Rev. E 95, 2017, 012310.

Curing critical links in oscillator networks as power flow models. M. Rohden, D. Witthaut, M. Timme, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, New J. Phys. 19, 2017, 013002.

Optimal design of energy conversion units and envelopes for residential building retrofits using a comprehensive MILP model. T. Schütz, L. Schiffer, H. Hassan, M. Fuchs, D. Müller, Applied Energy 185, 2017, 1-15.

Optimal design of energy conversion units for residential buildings considering German market conditions. T. Schütz, M. Schraven, S. Remy, J. Granacher, D. Kemetmüller, M. Fuchs, D. Müller, Energy 139, 2017, 895-915.

On solving probabilistic load flow for radial grids using polynomial chaos. R. R. Appino, T. Mühlpfordt, T. Faulwasser, V. Hagenmeyer, Power Tech 2017, IEEE Manchester, DOI: 10.1109/PTC.2017.7981264.

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 1: The Principle of Sector Coupling. M. Robinius, A. Otto, P. Heuser, L. Welder, K. Syranidis, D. S. Ryberg, T. Grube, P. Markewitz, R. Peters, D. Stolten, Energies 10, 2017, 956.

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany. M. Robinius, A. Otto, K. Syranidis, D. S. Ryberg, P. Heuser, L. Welder, T. Grube, P. Markewitz, V. Tietze, D. Stolten, Energies 10, 2017, 957.

Exploring emerging battery technology for grid-connected energy storage with constructive technology assessment. T. Versteeg, M. Baumann, M. Weil, A. B. Moniz, Technological Forecasting and Social Change 115, 2017, 99-110.

Power-to-Steel: Reducing CO2 through the Integration of Renewable Energy and Hydrogen into the German Steel Industry. A. Otto, M. Robinius, T. Grube, S. Schiebahn, A. Praktiknjo, D. Stolten, Energies 10, 2017, 451.

Robust multi-objective optimization for sustainable design of distributed energy supply systems. D. E. Majewski, M. Wirtz, M. Lampe, A. Bardow, Computers & Chemical Engineering 102, 2017, 26-39.

Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model. M. Reuß, T. Grube, M. Robinius, P. Preuster, P. Wasserscheid, D. Stolten, Applied Energy 200, 2017, 290-302.

Re-engineering energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transportation. B. Emonts, S. Schiebahn, K. Görner, D. Lindenberger, P. Markewitz, F. Merten, D. Stolten, Journal of power Sources 342, 2017, 320-326.

A Top-Down Spatially Resolved Electrical Load Model. M. Robinius, F. ter Stein, A. Schwane, D. Stolten, Energies 10, 2017, 361.

A Dual Method for Computing Power Transfer Distribution Factors. H. Ronellenfitsch, M. Timme, D. Witthaut, IEEE Transactions of Power Systems 2017.

Auswirkungen zukünftiger Nordsee-Offshore-Windparks und Nord-Süd-HGÜ-Übertragungsstrecken auf die Leistungsflüsse im Übertragungsnetz. Y. Rink, M. Suriyah, T. Leibfried, 4. Konferenz Zukünftige Stromnetze für Erneuerbare Energien, 2017, Berlin.


The MILESTONES modeling framework: An integrated analysis of national bioenergy strategies and their global environmental impacts. D. Thrän, R. Schaldach, M. Millinger, V. Wolf, O. Arendt, J. Ponitka, S. Gärtner, N. Rettenmaier, K. Hennenberg, J. Schüngel, Environmental Modelling & Software 86, 2016, 14-29, ISSN 1364-8152.

CO2 footprint and life cycle costs of electrochemical energy storage for stationary grid applications. M. Baumann, J. Peters, M. Weil, A. Grunwald, Energy Technology - Generation, Conversion, Storage, Distribution, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ente.201600622.

Photovoltaic power forecasting using simple data-driven models without weather data. J. Á. González Ordiano, S. Waczowicz, M. Reischl, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, Computer Science-Research and Development 32, 2016, 1-10.

Architectures for scalable integrated photo driven catalytic devices - A concept study. S. Kirner, P. Bogdanoff, B. Stannowski, R. van de Krol, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 41, 2016, 20823-20831.

Evaluation of Biomass-To-Methane Technologies by a Multi-Criteria Analysis. E. Billig, D. Thrän, EU BC&E Proceedings, 2016.

Evaluation of biomethane technologies in Europe - Technical concepts under the scope of a Delphi-Survey embedded in a multi-criteria analysis. E. Billig, D. Thrän, Energy 114, 2016, 1176.

 Early power to gas applications: Reducing wind farm forecast errors and providing secondary control reserve. F. Grueger, F. Möhrke, M. Robinius, D. Stolten, Appl. Energy 119, 2016, 551-562.

Nearest-Neighbor Based Non-Parametric Probabilistic Forecasting with Applications in Photovoltaic Systems. J. Á. González Ordiano, W. Doneit, S. Waczowicz, L. Gröll, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, KIT Scientific Publishing, 2016.


Performance analysis of the micro gas turbine Turbec T100 with a new FLOX-combustion system for low calorific fuels. T. Zornek, T. Monz, M. Aigner, Applied Energy 159, 2015, 276-284.

Power to Gas: Technological Overview, Systems Analysis and Economic Assessment for a Case Study in Germany. S. Schiebahn, et al., International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 40, 2015, 4285-4295.

Focus on Networks, Energy and the Economy. M. Timme, L. Kocarev, D. Witthaut, New J. Phys. 17, 2015, 110201.

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