Energy System 2050 – A Contribution of the Research Field Energy

“Energy System 2050” is a joint initiative of the research field energy of the Helmholtz Association. Running until 2019, it is aiming at improving the concrete understanding of energy systems and at developing technological solutions for use by politics and industry.


Optimal (n-1)-reliable design of distributed energy supply systems. D. E. Hollermann, D. F. Hoffrogge, F. Mayer, M. Hennen, A. Bardow. Comput Chem Eng, Volume 121, 2019, 317-326.

Utilization of MMC-HVDC for Primary and Secondary Control in Hybrid ACDC Power Systems. Rink, Y. Held, L., Wenig, S., Suriyah, M., Leibfried, Th. 2018 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), 4-7 Sept. 2018, Glasgow, UK, Publisher: IEEE, DOI: 10.1109/UPEC.2018.8542083

Multi-Indikator Assessment of Innovative Small-scale Biomethane Technologies. K. Bienert, B. Schumacher, M. Rojas Arboleda, E. Billig, S. Shakya, G. Rogstrand, M. Zieliński, M. Dębowski. Energies 12 (7), 2019, art. 1321. pdf

Non-fossil CO2 recycling—The technical potential for the present and future utilization for fuels in Germany. E. Billig, M. Decker, W. Benzinger, F. Ketelsen, P. Pfeifer, R. Peters, D. Stolten, D. Thrän. Journal of CO2 Utilization 30 , 2019, 130 – 141.

Biomethane: local energy carrier or European commodity? T. Horschig, E. Billig, S. Majer, D. Thrän. In: E. Gawel, S. Strunz, P. Lehmann, A. Purkus (eds.), The European dimension of Germany’s energy transition: opportunities and conflicts, 2019, Springer Nature, Cham, 543 – 557.

From Paris agreement to business cases for upgraded biogas: Analysis of potential market uptake for biomethane plants in Germany using biogenic carbon capture and utilization technologies. T. Horschig, A. Welfle, E. Billig, D. Thrän. Biomass Bioenerg. 120 , 2019, 313 – 323.

Techno-economic and environmental suitability criteria of hydrothermal processes for treating biogenic residues: A SWOT analysis approach. D. Reißmann, D. Thrän, A. Bezama, J. Clean Prod. 200, 2018, 293 – 304.

Key development factors of hydrothermal processes in Germany by 2030: A fuzzy logic analysis. D. Reißmann, D. Thrän, A. Bezama, Energies 11, 2008, art. 3532.

Technisch-ökonomischer Vergleich von Biomethan und Bio-SNG. E. Billig, Biobased Future : Mitteilungsblatt über Biomasse für Energie und Industrie in einer nachhaltigen Wirtschaft (7), 2017, 23 – 23.

The standardisation, production and utilisation of biomethane in Europe and China - a comprehensive analysis. E. Billig, D. Thrän, P. Pu, C. Yu, Int. J. Oil Gas Coal Technol. 14, 2017, 110 – 129.

A review of multi-criteria decision making approaches for evaluating energy storage systems for grid applications. M. Baumann, M. Weil, J. Peters, N. Chibeles-Martins, A. Brandão Moniz. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 107, 2019, 516-534, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2019.02.016.

A viability study of renewables and energy storage systems using multicriteria decision making and an evolutionary approach. C. Marcelino, C. Pedreira, M. Baumann, M. Weil, E. Wanner, P. Almeida. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) 11411(2019), 655-668, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-12598-1_52.

A combined optimisation and decision-making approach for battery-supported HMGS. C. G. Marcelino, M. J. Baumann, L. Carvalho, N. C. Martins, M. Weil, P. E. M. de Almeida, E. F. Wanner. Journal of the Operational Research Society 70, 2019; DOI:10.1080/01605682.2019.1582590.

A review of multi-criteria decision making approaches for evaluating energy storage systems for grid applications. M. Baumann, M. Weil, J. F. Peters, N. Chibeles-Martins, A. B. Moniz, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 107, 2019, 516-534.

Performance analysis of the micro gas turbine Turbec T100 with a new FLOX-combustion system for low calorific fuels. T. Zornek, T. Monz, M. Aigner, Applied Energy, 2015, 159, 276-284.

Experimental Analysis of the Fuel Flexibility of a Jet-Stabilized Micro Gas Turbine Combustor Designed for Low Calorific Gases. H. E. Bower, F. Grimm, A. Schwärzle, J. Roth, T. Zornek, P. Kutne, Global Power and Propulsion Society Conference (GPPS), 2018, Montreal, Canada.

Optical Measurements of a Lower Calorific Values-Combustor Operated in a Micro Gas Turbine With Various Fuel Compositions. T. Zornek, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2019, 141, 041032.

Smart Energy Grid der Zukunft – Securityprobleme und Lösungsansätze. H. Keller. Berliner Gesamtkonferenz der Sicherheitsinstitutionen, 5. Konferenz 2018, 7-33.

Solar hydrogen production: a bottom-up analysis of different photovoltaic–electrolysis pathways. Reuß, M.; Reul, J.; Grube, T.; Langemann, M.; Calnan, S.; Robinius, M.; Schlatmann, R.; Rauc, U.; Stolten, D. In: Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2019.

How to identify suitable ways for the hydrothermal treatment of wet bio-waste? A critical review and methods proposal. Reißmann, D.; Thrän, D.; Bezama A. Waste Management & Research (2018), S. 912 - 923, DOI: 10.1177/0734242X18785735

Life Cycle Assessment of hydrogen transport and distribution options. Wulf, C., M. Reuß, T. Grube, P. Zapp, M. Robinius, J.-F. Hake, and D. Stolten. 2018. Journal of Cleaner Production 199: 431-443.

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of the thermochemical conversion of biomass for the production of fuel, electricity and heat. Haase, M.; Rösch, C. (2018) In: ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Kopenhagen, Dänemark, 14.-17.05.2018. Florenz, Italien: ETA-Florence Renewable Energies 2018, publ. online, S. 1450-1457, DOI: 10.5071/26thEUBCE2018-4BV.6.6

Indicator System for the Sustainability Assessment of the German Energy System and its Transition. Rösch, C., Bräutigam, K.-R., Kopfmüller, J., Stelzer, V., Lichtner, P. In: Energy, Sustainability and Society 2017/01, S. 1-13, DOI: 10.1186/s13705-016-0103-y.

Sustainability assessment of the German energy transition. Rösch, C., Bräutigam, K.-R., Kopfmüller, J., Stelzer, V., Fricke, A. In: Energy, Sustainability and Society 2018/12, DOI : 10.1186/s13705-018-0153-4

LCA of key technologies for future electricity supply. Frischknecht. R.; Bauer, C; Bucher, C.; Ager-Wick Ellingsen, L.; Gutzwiller, L.; Heimbach, B.; Itten, R.; Liao, X.; Panos, E.; Pfister, S.; Schmidt, T.; Stahel, V.; Stolz, P. u.a. sowie Weil, M. 68th LCA forum, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 16 April 2018. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (2018), S. 1-6, publ. online, DOI: 10.1007/s11367-018-1496-y

Solving security constrained optimal power flow problems: A hybrid evolutionary approach.;Marcelino, C.; Almeida, P.; Wanner, E.; Baumann, M.; Weil, M.; Carvalho, L.; Miranda, V. Applied Intelligence (2018), S. 1-19, publ. online, DOI: 10.1007/s10489-018-1167-5

A new model for optimization of hybrid microgrids using an evolutionary approach (in Portugiesisch). Marcelino, C.; Baumann, M.; Almeida, P.; Wanner, E.; Weil, M. IEEE Latin America Transactions 16(2018)3, S. 799-805

Life cycle assessment of a vanadium redox flow battery. Weber, S.; Peters, J.; Baumann, M.; Weil, M. Energy Environmental Science 52(2018)18, S. 10864-10873, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b02073

Ökologische und Ökonomische Performance stationärer Li-Ion-Batteriespeicher. Baumann, M.; Peters, J.; Weil, M. In: 15. Symposium Energieinnovation, Graz, Österreich, 2018, ISBN 978-3-85125-586-7,
DOI: 10.3217/978-3-85125-584-3

Life-cycle analysis for assessing environmental impact. Hottenroth, H.; Peters, J.; Baumann, M.; Tietze, I.; Viere, T. In: Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M. (Hrsg.): Energy storage options and their environmental impacts. Abingdon, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry 2018, S. 261-295, DOI: 10.1039/9781788015530-00261 (Issues in Environmental Science and Technology)

On the Use of Probabilistic Forecasts in Scheduling of Renewable Energy Sources Coupled to Storages. Appino, R. R.; González-Ordiano, J. Á.; Mikut, R.; Faulwasser, T.; Hagenmeyer, V. Applied Energy, 2018, 210, 1207 - 1218

Reliable Dispatch of Renewable Generation via Charging of;Time-varying PEV PopulationsAppino, R. R.; Muñoz-Ortiz, M.; Ordiano, J. Á.; Mikut, R.; Hagenmeyer, V.; Faulwasser, T. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, IEEE, 2018

Energy Forecasting Tools and Services. González Ordiano, J. Á.; Waczowicz, S.; Hagenmeyer, V.; Mikut, R. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining;and Knowledge Discovery, 2018, 8(2), e1235

Concept and Benchmark Results for Big Data Energy Forecasting Based on Apache Spark.Journal of Big Data, 2018, 5(1), 11. González Ordiano, J. Á.; Bartschat, A.; Ludwig, N.; Braun, E.; Waczowicz,;S.; Renkamp, N.; Peter, N.; Düpmeier, C.; Mikut, R. & Hagenmeyer, V.

Numerical Weather Prediction Data Free Solar Power Forecasting with Neural.Sharma, V.; Cali, U.; Hagenmeyer, V.; Mikut, R.; González Ordiano, J. Á.;Networks Proc., of the Ninth ACM International Conference on Future Energy;Systems, 2018, 604-609

Storage Scheduling with Stochastic Uncertainties: Feasibility and Cost of Imbalances Proc.Appino, R. R.; González Ordiano, J. Á.; Mikut, R.; Hagenmeyer, V. & Faulwasser, T. 2018 Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), 2018, 1-7

Towards Coding Strategies for Forecasting-Based Scheduling in Smart Grids and the Energy Lab 2.0 Proc., Genetic and Evolutionary Computation.Jakob, W.; González-Ordiano, JÁ.; Ludwig, N.; Mikut, R. & Hagenmeyer, V. Conference Companion, 2017, 1271-1278

Dynamically induced cascading failures in supply networks. Schaefer B.; Witthaut D.; Timme M. and Latora V. In: Nature Communications 9, 1975 (2018)

Linear Optimal Power Flow Using Cycle Flows. Hoersch J.; Ronellenfitsch H.; Witthaut D. and Brown T. In: Electric Power Systems Research; 158, 126 (2018)

Rotor-angle versus voltage instability in the third-order model for synchronous generators. Sharafutdinov K.; Matthiae M.; Faulwasser T.; Witthaut D. In: Chaos 28, 033117 (2018)

Modeling long correlation times using additive binary Markov chains: Applications to wind generation time series. Weber J.; Zachow C. and Witthaut D. In: Phys. Rev. E 97, 032138 (2018)

Inferring power-grid topology in the face of uncertainties. Basiri F.; Casadiego J.; Timme M. and Witthaut D. In: Phys. Rev. E 98, 012305 (2018)

Energiespeicher. Stenzel, P., et al. In: Brennstoff, Wärme, Kraft, 2018. 5: p. 35-46.

Control Techniques and the Modeling of Electrical Power Flow across Transmission Networks. Syranidis, K.; M. Robinius; and D. Stolten. In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 2018. 82(3): p. 3452 - 3467.

The Investment Costs of Electrolysis - A Comparison of Cost Studies from the Past 30 Years.  Saba, S., et al. In: International journal of hydrogen energy, 2018. 43(3): p. 1209 - 1223.

Power-to-Gas Electrolyzers as an Alternative to Network Expansion - An Example from a Distribution System Operator. Robinius, M., et al. In: Applied energy, 2018. 210: p. 182 - 197.

Assessment of system variations for hydrogen transport by liquid organic hydrogen carriers. Wulf, C.; Zapp P. In: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018. 43(26): 11884-11895.

Effect of Cascade Storage System Topology on the Cooling Energy Consumption in Fueling Stations for Hydrogen Vehicles. Talpacci, E., et al. In: International journal of hydrogen energy, 2017. 43(12): p. 6256 - 6265.

Power to Gas: Technological Overview, Systems Analysis and Economic Assessment for a Case Study in Germany. Schiebahn, S., et al. In: International journal of hydrogen energy, 2015. 40(12): p. 4285-4295.

H2-Pipelinenetz ist bezahlbar. Robinius, M. In: HZwei, 2017. 3: p. xyz.

Time Series Aggregation for Energy Systems Design: Modeling of Seasonal Storage.  Kotzur, L., et al. In: Applied energy, 2017. 213: p. 123 - 135.

Impact of Different Time Series Aggregation Methods on Optimal Energy System Design. Kotzur, L., et al. In: Renewable energy, 2017. 117: p. 474 - 487.

Long-term power-to-gas potential from wind and solar power: A country analysis for Italy.  Guandalini, G., et al. In: International journal of hydrogen energy, 2017. 42(19): p. 13389 – 13406.

Renewable methane – A technology evaluation by multi-criteria decision making in a European perspective. Billig, E.; Thrän, D. In: Energy 139 (2017), pp 468-484. DOI:10.1016/

Bioenergy carriers – from smoothly treated biomass towards solid and gaseous biofuels. Thrän, D.; Billig, E.; Brosowski A.; Klemm M.; Seitz S.M.; Witt J. In: Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2017):  DOI: 10.1002/cite.201700083.

Improved power provision from biomass: A retrospective on the impacts of German energy policy. Scheftelowitz M.; Becker R.; Thrän D. In: Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 111, 2018, Pages 1-12, ISSN 0961-9534.

Completion of wind turbine data sets for wind integration studies applying random forests and k-nearest neighbors. Becker R.; Thrän T. In: Applied Energy, Volume 208, 2017, Pages 252-262, ISSN 0306-2619.

Biogas plants and surplus generation: Cost driver or reducer in the future German electricity system? Lauer M.; Thrän D. In: Energy Policy, Volume 109, 2017, Pages 324-336, ISSN 0301-4215.

The MILESTONES modeling framework: An integrated analysis of national bioenergy strategies and their global environmental impacts. Thrän D.; Schaldach R.; Millinger M.; Wolf V.; Arendt O.; Ponitka J.; Gärtner S.; Rettenmaier N.; Hennenberg K.; Schüngel J. In: Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 86, 2016, Pages 14-29, ISSN 1364-8152.

Hydrothermal processes as treatment paths for biogenic residues in Germany: A review of the technology, sustainability and legal aspects. Reißmann D.; Thrän D.; Bezama A. In: Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 172, 2018, Pages 239-252, ISSN 0959-6526 

On Implementation of Primary Frequency Control, MMC-HVDC Transmission Systems. Y. Rink; L. Held; S. Wenig; M. Suriyah and T. Leibfried in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies IEEE (ISGT Europe 2017), Torino, Italy, 2017

Cluster-based DC grid control strategies applied to a European offshore grid scenario. Rink Y.,  Wenig S., Hirsching C., Suriyah M. and Leibfried T. Proc. In: 52th IEEE International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC 2017), Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2017

More homogeneous wind conditions under strong climate change decrease the potential for inter-state balancing of electricity in Europe.  Wohland, J., Reyers, M., Weber, J., Witthaut, D. In: Earth System Dynamics 8, (2017),1047–1060.

Natural wind variability triggered drop in German redispatch volume and costs from 2015 to 2016. PLOS ONE 13, e0190707. Wohland, J., Reyers, M., Märker, C., Witthaut, D., 2018

Non-Gaussian Power Grid Frequency Fluctuations Characterized by Lévy-stable Laws and Superstatistics. Schäfer B., Beck C., Aihara K., Witthaut D., Timme M., Nature Energy (2018)

Cycle flows and multistabilty in oscillatory networks: an overview. Manik D., Timme M., Witthaut D., Chaos 27, 083123 (2017)

Dual theory of transmission line outages. Ronellenfitsch H., Manik D., Hoersch J., Brown T., Witthaut D., IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 32, 4060 (2017) 

Escape Routes, Weak Links, and Desynchronization in Fluctuation-driven Networks. Schaefer B., Matthiae M., Zhang X., Rohden M., Timme M., Witthaut D., Phys. Rev. E 95, 060203 (2017)

Network susceptibilities: theory and applications. Manik D., Rohden M., Ronellenfitsch H., Zhang X., Hallerberg S., Witthaut D., Timme M., Phys. Rev. E 95, 012310 (2017)

Curing critical links in oscillator networks as power flow models. Rohden M., Witthaut D., Timme M., Meyer-Ortmanns H., New J. Phys. 19, 013002 (2017) 

Optimal design of energy conversion units and envelopes for residential building retrofits using a comprehensive MILP model. Schütz, T., Schiffer L., Hassan, H., Fuchs, M., Müller, D. Applied Energy, Vol. 185, Part 1, 1 January 2017, pp. 1-15

Optimal design of energy conversion units for residential buildings considering German market conditions. Schütz, T., Schraven, M., Remy, S., Granacher, J., Kemetmüller, D., Fuchs, M., Müller, D. Energy, In Press

On solving probabilistic load flow for radial grids using polynomial chaos. R. R. Appino, T. Mühlpfordt, T. Faulwasser, V. Hagenmeyer, Power Tech 2017, IEEE Manchester, DOI: 10.1109/PTC.2017.7981264.

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 1: The Principle of Sector Coupling. M. Robinius, A. Otto, P. Heuser, L. Welder, K. Syranidis, D. S. Ryberg, T. Grube, P. Markewitz, R. Peters, D. Stolten, Energies 2017, 10, 956.

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany. M. Robinius, A. Otto, K. Syranidis, D. S. Ryberg, P. Heuser, L. Welder, T. Grube, P. Markewitz, V. Tietze, D. Stolten, Energies 2017, 10, 957

Exploring emerging battery technology for grid-connected energy storage with constructive technology assessment. T. Versteeg, M. Baumann, M. Weil, A. B. Moniz, Technological Forecasting and Social Change 2017, 115, 99-110.

CO2 footprint and life cycle costs of electrochemical energy storage for stationary grid applications. M. Baumann, J. Peters, M. Weil, A. Grunwald, Energy Technology - Generation, Conversion, Storage, Distribution 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ente.201600622.

Power-to-Steel: Reducing CO2 through the Integration of Renewable Energy and Hydrogen into the German Steel Industry. A. Otto, M. Robinius, T. Grube, S. Schiebahn, A. Praktiknjo, D. Stolten, energies 10, 2017, 451.

Robust multi-objective optimization for sustainable design of distributed energy supply systems. D. E. Majewski, M. Wirtz, M. Lampe, A. Bardow, Computers & Chemical Engineering 102, 2017, 26-39.

Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model. M. Reuß , T. Grube, M. Robinius, P. Preuster, P. Wasserscheid, D. Stolten, Applied Energy 200, 2017, 290-302.

Re-engineering energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transportation. B. Emonts, S. Schiebahn, K. Görner, D. Lindenberger, P. Markewitz, F. Merten, D. Stolten, Journal of power Sources 342, 2017, 320-326.

A Top-Down Spatially Resolved Electrical Load Model. M. Robinius, F. ter Stein, A. Schwane, D. Stolten, Energies 10(3), 2017, 361.

A Dual Method for Computing Power Transfer Distribution Factors. H. Ronellenfitsch, M. Timme, D. Witthaut, IEEE Transactions of Power Systems 2017.

Auswirkungen zukünftiger Nordsee-Offshore-Windparks und Nord-Süd-HGÜ-Übertragungsstrecken auf die Leistungsflüsse im Übertragungsnetz. Y. Rink, M. Suriyah, T. Leibfried, 4. Konferenz Zukünftige Stromnetze für Erneuerbare Energien, 2017, Berlin.

Photovoltaic power forecasting using simple data-driven models without weather data. J. Á. González Ordiano, S. Waczowicz, M. Reischl, R. Mikut, V. Hagenmeyer, Computer Science-Research and Development, 2016, 1-10.

Architectures for scalable integrated photo driven catalytic devices - A concept study. S. Kirner, P. Bogdanoff, B. Stannowski, R. van de Krol, B. Rech, R. Schlatmann, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016.

Evaluation of Biomass-To-Methane Technologies by a Multi-Criteria Analysis. E. Billig, D. Thrän, EU BC&E Proceedings, 2016.

Evaluation of biomethane technologies in Europe - Technical concepts under the scope of a Delphi-Survey embedded in a multi-criteria analysis. E. Billig, D. Thrän, Energy, 2016, 114, 1176.

Focus on Networks, Energy and the Economy M. Timme, L. Kocarev, D. Witthaut, New J. Phys. 2015, 17, 110201

Early power to gas applications: Reducing wind farm forecast errors and providing secondary control reserve” F. Grueger, F. Möhrke, M. Robinius, D. Stolten, Appl. Energy, 2016

"Nearest-Neighbor Based Non-Parametric Probabilistic Forecasting with Applications in Photovoltaic Systems" González, O., J. Á., Doneit, W., Waczowicz, S., Gröll, L., Mikut, R., Hagenmeyer, V., KIT Scientific Publishing, 2016

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